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The Emerging Risks of Live Virus and Virus Vectored Vaccines

mutated poliovirus

Vaccine strain live virus is also shed for varying amounts of time in the body fluids of vaccinated people and can be transmitted to others.

This is the first in a multi-part series of articles that will be published in The Vaccine Reaction containing updated information from a special report on vaccine strain virus infection, shedding and transmission originally published by NVIC in November 2014.

Part I—Can People Receiving Live Virus Vaccines Transmit Vaccine Strain Virus to Others?

Public health officials say that unvaccinated children pose a big danger to those around them and even threaten the health of fully vaccinated children and adults because vaccines can fail to prevent infection in vaccinated persons.1 2 3 4 Today, the most common argument used to justify “no exceptions” mandatory vaccination laws is that unvaccinated people pose a serious health threat to others who “cannot be vaccinated,” such as the immune-compromised.5 6

Some parents of unvaccinated children are asking the opposite question: Could my unvaccinated or immune compromised child get sick from coming in contact with a recently vaccinated person?

When it comes to live virus vaccines, the short answer is: Yes.

During a viral infection, live virus is shed in the body fluids of those who are infected for varying amounts of time and can be transmitted to others.7 8 9 Vaccine strain live virus is also shed for varying amounts of time in the body fluids of vaccinated people and can be transmitted to others.10 11 12

Although public health officials maintain that live attenuated virus vaccines rarely cause complications in the vaccinated person and that vaccine strain viral shedding rarely causes disease in close contacts of the recently vaccinated,13 it is important to be aware that vaccine strain live virus infection can sometimes cause serious complications in vaccinated persons and vaccine strain live viruses can be shed and transmitted to others with serious or even fatal consequences.

Viruses: Microbes That Help, Harm and Evolve

Unlike bacteria, viruses are microbes that that cannot multiply on their own but need a human, animal or other living host to replicate. Viruses inject their genetic material into the cells of humans and other living hosts (including plants, insects and bacteria) in order to replicate.

Many viruses have developed various molecular mechanisms to evade the immune responses of their host. There is great diversity among viruses and they often mutate and recombine with other viruses while continually being shed and transmitted in body fluids and waste products of animals and humans.14

There is an ongoing debate among scientists about where viruses came from and how they evolved and are still evolving.15 One virologist observed that replicating and mutating viruses are the “world’s leading source of genetic innovation:”

The huge population of viruses, combined with their rapid rates of replication and mutation, makes them the world’s leading source of genetic innovation: they constantly ‘invent’ new genes. And unique genes of viral origin may travel, finding their way into other organisms and contributing to evolutionary change.16

Discussing the co-evolution of viruses with humans and other living organisms, another virologist wrote in 2012 that during epidemics viruses evolve. Genetic and environmental co-factors make some individuals more or less likely to die from or survive the infection, producing an increase of the numbers of resistant individuals in the population:

Viruses can become particularly dangerous when they evolve to acquire the possibility to infect new animal species. The defense systems of the new host may be generally unable to counteract the new pathogen and many individuals will die. In any epidemic, there are also individuals showing little sensitivity to or complete resistance to the particular pathogen. Both increased sensitivity and resistance to the infection are specified by the individual’s genetic makeup and various environmental factors. Accordingly, mass epidemics not only produce new virus variants but also alter the host population structure: highly sensitive individuals die, while the portion of resistant individuals in the population increases. Therefore, the coevolution of the virus and the host is a mutually dependent process.17

Viral Infections Both Trigger and Are Protective Against Autoimmunity

Most people fear and view viruses as dangerous microbes that only cause sickness and death. However, emerging evidence has revealed that viruses play an integral role in helping us stay well, too.18

Healthy infants experience many different kinds of wild-type viral infections and shed virus without showing any clinical symptoms of illness. In addition to the protection they receive from maternal antibodies, viruses help the infant’s immune system develop and gives them early protection against more serious viral infections in infancy and later in life.19 20 21

Depending upon individual genetic variability, viral infections have been associated with the triggering of autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes in some individuals; however, for many other people viral infections appear to be protective against development of autoimmunity.22

Public Health Policies & the Hygiene Hypothesis: According to scientists discussing the ‘hygiene hypothesis,’ increased sanitation and public health interventions in modern societies have reduced the diversity of early experiences with viral and bacterial infections among infants and children and one negative outcome has been an increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases.23 They suggest that some infectious microbes, especially those that have co-evolved with humans, protect against a wide spectrum of immune-related disorders.24 25

The next article in this TVR series will be The Human Microbiome: Viruses R Us.


References:

1 Aleccia J. In Texas and beyond, hot spots for vaccine refusers alarm officials. NBC News Aug. 31, 2013.
2 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  FDA study helps provide an understanding of rising rates of whooping cough and response to vaccination. FDA Press Release Nov. 27, 2013.
3 Fox M. Flu Shot Fail: Why Doesn’t the Vaccine Always Work? NBC News Feb. 8, 2014.
4 Marder J. You Could Get Measles Even If You’re Vaccinated. PBS Jan. 28, 2015.
5 Vela V. Vaccination bill should sting a bit less. Colorado Community Media April 23, 2014.
6 Dell’Antonia KJ. Want More Kids Vaccinated? End Religious and Personal Exemptions. The New York Times Feb. 2, 2015.
7 Baron S, Fons M, Albrecht T. Viral Pathogenesis. In: Medical Microbiology, 4th Edition. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 1996.
8 Schwartz RA. Enteroviruses. Medscape Sept. 11, 2014.
9 National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC). Ebola (Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever). NVIC.org.
10 King JC, Treanor J, Fast PE et al. Comparison of the Safety, Vaccine Virus Shedding and Immunogenicity of Influenza Virus Vaccine, Trivalent, Types A and B, Live Cold-Adapted, Administered to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and Non-HIV Infected Adults. J Infect Dis 2000; 181(2): 725-728.
11 Payne DC, Edwards KM, Bowen MD et al. Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated with Rotavirus Gastroenteritis. Pediatrics 2010; 125(2).
12 McKenna M. Polio vaccination may continue after wild virus fades. CIDRAP Oct. 16, 2008.
13 Mallory RM, Yi T, Ambrose CS. Shedding of Ann Arbor Strain live attenuated influenza vaccine virus in children 6-59 months of age. Vaccine 2011; 29(26): 4322-4327.
14 Fleischmann WR. Viral Genetics. In: Medical Microbiology, 4th Edition. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 1996.
15 Wessner DR. The Origins of Viruses. Nature Education 2010; 3(9): 37.
16 Villarreal LP. Are Viruses Alive? Scientific American December 2004.
17 Shchelkunov SN. Orthopoxvirus Genes That Media Disease Virulence and Host Tropism. Adv Virol 2012.
18 Pullen LC. Bacterial Microbiome Move Over: the Gut Virome Makes Its Debut. Medscape Nov. 19, 2014.
19 Kapuskinsky B, Minor P, Delwart E. Nearly Constant Shedding of Diverse Enteric Viruses by Two Healthy Infants. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(11): 3427-3434.
20 Sahehaju K, Knip M, Virtanen SM. Maternal Antibodies in Breast Milk Protect the Child from Enterovirus Infections. Pediatrics 2007; 119(5): 941-946.
21 Navarini AA, Krzyzowska M, Lang KS et al. Long lasting immunity by early infection of maternal-antibody-protected infants. Eur J Immunol 2010; 40: 113-116.
22 Boettler T, von Herrath M. Protection against or triggering type 1 diabetes? Different roles for viral infections. Exper Clin Rev Immunol 2011; 7(1): 45-53.
23 Salur L, Oikarinen S, Tauriainen S et al. Enterovirus infections in young infants: Are children still protect by maternal antibodies? Human Vaccines 2011; 7(9):966-971.
24 Okada H, Kuhn C, Feillet H, Bach JF. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update. Clin Exp Immunol 2010; 160 (1): 1-9.
25 Vieira SM, Pegovich OE, Kriegel MA. Diet, Microbiota and Autoimmune Disease. Lupus 2014; 23(6): 518-526.

14 Responses to The Emerging Risks of Live Virus and Virus Vectored Vaccines

  1. Robert Wolfe Reply

    January 19, 2016 at 3:10 pm

    I wonder just how many of these viruses can also inhibit or bind with p53, like SV40 does? Even the so called attenuated forms. The answer would be, nearly all of them! As long as vaccines contain active enzymes, which would be nigh impossible to remove, they are not safe, as there is no telling exactly where in the human body these enzymes will react, or with what!

  2. June Reply

    January 19, 2016 at 5:27 pm

  3. Colorado Reply

    January 19, 2016 at 6:19 pm

    I’ve got an ongoing debate regarding how most scientists have long since cast away the scientific method, and are just tools to sell the next corporate product. For all the so called scientists out there, less than half of them have any real allegience to ethics in the first place. Without ethics, there can be no science. Who is foolish enough to actually believe that a ‘scientist’ employed by a major corporation, is actually given latitude to remain unbiased and ethical? Under the thumb, on the payroll, sold out, owned men and women, and the list of tried and true identifiers go on, for the scientific community. There should be a rule that major medical corporations should not be allowed to test the safety of their own products. There should be an additional rule that if the corporation wants someone to test the product on, they have to go first. The truth is we’ve got enough scientific and medical understanding at this point, that if money was not involved, we’d all be right as rain and healthy as a horse. Never trust the fox to tell you the hen house is safe.

    • Richard Reply

      January 20, 2016 at 6:39 am

      You conveyed that perfectly.
      Thumbs up.

      • Sheila Reply

        January 20, 2016 at 9:58 am

        The comment from CO on the 19th — I couldn’t have said it better. You hit it on the nose!

    • Kathryn B Reply

      January 21, 2016 at 7:49 am

      Right on. Same here, I couldn’t have said it better.

  4. Shelley Reply

    January 19, 2016 at 9:46 pm

    Where is the endnotes? I can see the text has been referenced but clicking on the number doesn’t do anything and there isn’t a list at the end. Could I please have a copy of the list of the articles referenced? Thanks!

    • Marco Caceres Reply

      January 20, 2016 at 7:31 am

      Just click on the word “References” at the bottom of the article, and the endnotes will appear.

      Editor

  5. Carol Reply

    January 19, 2016 at 11:27 pm

    Which vaccines use a live virus? I’m not aware of any since they stopped giving the polio one in live form.

    • CAWS Reply

      January 20, 2016 at 8:08 am

      Live virus vaccines currently used in USA are Measles Mumps Rubella, nasal flu,shingles,rota virus and most of your veterinary shots. Distemper by itself is no longer manufactured. You must give 5 live virus shots at once to puppies and they usually give the rabies at the same time. Some breeders have hired a virologist that proved their litters died of parvo from the virus strain in the shot. In an effort to prevent the injection site fatal cancers seen in cats receiving aluminum based Rabies shots they are trying a new “attenuated” Rabies shot this year. [3X the price too]Watch out folks.
      The Sabin live oral polio vaccine is STILL being administered in 3rd world countries by the Gates Foundation to starving children. Nearly half a million in India are now paralyzed. Better they should spend the money on food & clean water,but that does not fit with their eugenics agenda.
      St.Jude’s children’s cancer hospital will allow no recently vaccinated visitors for the very reason that they may shed virus to the very vulnerable patients residing there.

  6. Desiree Rover Reply

    January 20, 2016 at 6:24 am

    The whole religion of vaccination rests on two nonsensical ideas:
    1. the faulty folk myth of Edward Jenner: when one has had cowpox, one is protected against smallpox (two completely different viral entities!), and
    2. the germ theory of Louis Pasteur.
    Both beliefs are being academically parroted ad nauseam.
    Th reality of the polymorphism of microbial entities has been perfectly described by Pierre Antoine Béchamp, who was a true scientist, and not an empty head looking for fame, as Pasteur was — who stole some of Béchamp’s ideas and pretended they were his…

    The reality is that microbes are intelligent, exchange information, and are therefore dynamic!

  7. Judy Anderson Reply

    January 20, 2016 at 9:52 am

    When my third child was 1 month old, I had my 2 and 4 year olds get their MMR booster. I had never been vaccinated because my Dad had been in army hospitals during WW2 and saw first hand some of the terrifying consequences of vaccinations. But my mother had been told she was blind in one eye because of having the measles (we later found out it was a lazy eye) and that my older sister had crossed eyes because of having the measles (we later learned crossed eyes run in our family among many of the kids who were unvaccinated and never had the measles). So she convinced me to “at least” have the measles shots.
    About 10 days after their booster my little baby was feverish and fussy and I started sneezing and my eyes were sensitive to the sunlight. When we went to the ER, guess what? We had the measles. Apparently other states, like Florida, would send mothers with toddlers and babies home with rubber gloves because you could contract measles from their body fluids. Michigan, however, never says a word.
    So I for one know very well that others being vaccinated can make someone else very sick.

  8. Missy Reply

    February 10, 2016 at 12:27 pm

    I believe that herpes is caused by the chicken pox vaccine, or is some way involved in the active virus infection. Just call it instinct. They’ve already said it’s responsible for the shingles infection so really there’s no doubt in my mind herpes infections are somehow affected. It seems a few years after the Varicella vaccine the child gets an outbreak usually by age 3 to 5.

    • Missy Reply

      February 10, 2016 at 12:29 pm

      Matter of fact they know exactly when the children will get an outbreak!

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